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Electrochemical Equivalents

Calculated on the Basis of 100% Cathode Efficiency



Metal


Symbol


Valence

Atomic Weight

Specific Gravity
Weight oz/ft2 for 0.001” Thickness
in inches of 1 oz/ft2
Grams deposited per
Amp Hour

Ounces per
Amp. Hour

Amp. Hrs. per sq ft to Deposit 0.001”
Antimony Sb 3 121.75 6.62 0.56 0.0018 1.514 0.053 10.4
Arsenic As 3 74.92 5.72 0.47 0.00213 0.932 0.033 14.4
Cadmium Cd 2 112.4 8.65 0.71 0.00139 2.097 0.074 9.73
Chromium Cr 6 52 7.2 0.59 0.00169 0.323 0.011 51.8
Cobalt Co 2 58.93 8.9 0.74 0.00135 1.099 0.039 19
Copper (ous) Cu 1 63.54 8.96 0.74 0.00134 2.37 0.084 8.89
Copper (ic) Cu 2 63.54 8.96 0.74 0.00134 1.186 0.042 17.8
Gold (ous) Au 1 197 19.3 1.47* .00068* 7.348 .236* 6.2
Gold (ic) Au 3 197 19.3 1.47* .00068* 2.449 .079* 18.6
Indium In 3 114.82 7.31 0.56* .00182* 1.428 .045* 12
Iron (ous) Fe 2 55.85 7.31 0.65 0.00153 1.042 0.037 17.9
Lead Pb 2 207.19 11.34 0.94 0.00106 3.865 0.136 6.9
Nickel Ni 2 58.71 8.9 0.74 0.00135 1.095 0.039 19
Palladium Pd 2 106.4 12 0.86* .00116* 1.985 .064* 13.5
Platinum Pt 4 195.09 32.41 1.60* .00062* 1.819 .058* 27.8
Rhodium Rh 3 102.91 12.4 0.95* .00106* 1.28 .041* 22.9
Silver Ag 1 107.87 10.5 0.79* .00126* 4.024 .129* 6.2
Tin (ous) Sn 2 118.69 7.3 0.61 0.00164 2.214 0.078 7.8
Tin (ic) Sn 4 118.69 7.3 0.61 0.00164 1.106 0.039 15.6
Zinc Zn 2 65.38 7.14 0.59 0.00168 1.219 0.043 14.3

* These figures are for 1 troy ounce

Conversion Factors

MULTIPLY BY TO GET
Amps/sq. ft. 0.108 amps/sq.dm.
Amps/sq. dm 9.29 amps/sq. ft.
Centimeters 0.394 inches
Centimeters 393.7 mils
Centimeters 0.0328 feet
Cubic centimeters 0.0338 ounces (fluid)
Cubic feet 7.48 gallons
Faraday/second 96500 amperes
Feet 0.3048 meters
Gallons 4 quarts (liquid)
Gallons 3785.4 cubic centimeters
Gallons (U.S.) 231 cubic inches
Gallons (U.S.) 3.785 liters
Gallons (U.S.) 128 ounces (fluid)
Gallons (U.S.) 8 pints
Gallons (U.S.) 8.34 pounds (avg.) of H2O @ 62F
Grains 0.0648 grams
Grains 0.0023 ounces (avoir.)
Grains 0.0021 ounces (troy)
Grams/liter 0.122 ounces/gallon (troy)
Grams/liter 0.134 ounces/gallon (avoir.)
Grams/liter 1000 parts per million
Grams/liter 0.833 pounds (avoir.)/100 gals.
Inches 2.54 Centimeters
Inches 1000 Mils
Kilograms 1000 Grams
Kilograms 2.205 pounds (avoir.)
Kilograms 2.679 pounds (troy)
Liters 1000 Milliliters
Liters 0.264 Gallons
Meters 100 Centimeters
Meters 39.37 Inches
Microns 3.9 x 10-5 Inches
Milligrams 0.001 Grams
Milliliters 1.000027 cubic centimeters
Mils 0.001 Inches
Mils 25.4 Microns
Ounces (avoir.) 0.076 pounds (troy)
Ounces/gallon (avoir.) 7.5 grams/liter
Ounces (fluid) 29.57 cubic centimeters
Ounces/gallon (fluid) 7.81 cc./liter
Pints 1.6 ounces (fluid)
Pounds (avoir.) 453.6 grams
Pounds (avoir.) 16 ounces (avoir.)
Pounds (avoir.)/100 gal 1.2 grams/liter
Quarts (liquid) 946.4 cubic centimeters
Quarts (liquid) 2 pints
square feet 144 square inches

Chemical Composition of Salts Commonly Used in Electroplating Baths

The following table indicates the percentages of the metal, sulfate, chloride, etc., in the commercial grades of the various chemicals most commonly used in electroplating solutions. The quantity of a chemical to be added to produce the desired increase in metal content, etc., per gallon can be readily calculated from data in this table.

COMPOUND

FORMULA

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Ammonium chloride

NH4Cl

NH4 = 33.7%

Cl = 66.3%

 

Cadmium oxide

CdO

Cd = 87.5%

O = 12.5%

 

Chromic acid

CrO3

Cr = 52.0%

 

 

Cobalt sulfate

CoSO4 ∙ 7 H2O

Co = 20.9%

SO4 = 30.0%

 

Copper carbonate, basic

CuCO3 ∙ Cu(OH)2

Cu = 53.5%

CO3 = 34.8%

 

Copper cyanide

CuCN

Cu = 70.9%

CN = 29.1 %

 

Copper potassium cyanide

CuK2(CN)3

Cu = 28.9%

K = 35.5%

CN = 35.5%

Copper sulfate

CuSO4 ∙ 5 H2O

Cu = 25.4%

SO4 = 38.4%

 

Copper pyrophosphate

Cu2P2O7 ∙ 3 H2O

Cu = 36.0%

P2O7 = 48.9%

 

Gold chloride

AuCl3 ∙2 H2O

Au = 58.0%

Cl = 31.4%

 

Gold potassium cyanide

KAu(CN)2

Au = 68.3%

 

 

Nickel carbonate

2 NiCO3 +

2 Ni(OH)2 ∙ 4 H2O

Ni = 44% min

CO3 = 12% approx.

Nickel chloride

NiCl2 ∙ 6 H2O

Ni = 24.5%

Cl = 29.6%

 

Nickel formate

Ni(CHO2)2 ∙2 H2O

Ni = 31.3%

 

 

Nickel sulfate

NiSO4 ∙ 6H2O

Ni = 22.5%

SO4 = 34.0%

 

Potassium pyrophosphate

K2P2O7

K = 47.3%

P2O7 = 52.7%

 

Potassium stannate

K2SnO3 ∙ 3 H2O

Sn = 39.6%

 

 

Silver chloride

AgCl

Ag = 75.3%

Cl = 24.7%

 

Silver cyanide

AgCN

Ag = 80.5%

CN = 19.5%

 

Silver potassium cyanide

AgK(CN)2

Ag = 54.2%

K = 19.6%

CN = 26.2%

Sodium carbonate (soda ash)

Na2CO3

Na2CO3 = 99.3%

Na2O = 58.0%

 

Sodium chloride

NaCl

Na = 39.3%

Cl = 60.7%

 

Sodium cyanide

NaCN

NaCN = 96%

CN = 51%

 

Sodium formate

NaCH2O

Sodium formate = 31.4% Formic acid equiv. = 66.5%

Sodium stannate

Na2SnO3 ∙ 3 H2O

Sn = 44.6%

 

 

Stannous chloride

SnCl2 ∙ 2 H2O

Sn = 52.6%

Cl = 31.5%

 

Stannous sulfate

SnSO4

Sn = 55.3%

SO4 = 44.7 %

 

Zinc cyanide

Zn(CN)2

Zn = 55.6%

CN = 44.3 %

 

Zinc oxide

ZnO

Zn = 80.2%

O = 19.7%

 

Zinc sulfate (89% or low moisture)

 

Zn = 34.4%

SO4 = 52.0%

 

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